CERVICAL CANCER VACCINE : HOW IT WORKS,WHO NEEDS IT
Cervical cancer ranks as the second cause of female cancer in Malaysia.The incidence rate increases with age after 25 years & peaks at 60-69 years old.
By ethnicity,Chinese women have the highest incidence of cervical cancer followed by Indians & Malays.
It is well recognized that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) plays an important role in the aetiology of cervical cancer.
HPV is number 2 carcinogen after Tobacco.High risk HPV types are 16 and 18 form
up to 70 % of viral types detected in cervical cancerHigh risk HPV types are also recognized to be responsible for vulval,vaginal and anal precancerous lesions.
Mechanisms of HPV transmission are sexual contact,non-sexual routes e.g mother to newborn and formites.Prophylactic HPV vaccines induce neutralizing antibodies that prevent the virus from entering into the cells.
HPV vaccines are not only for women but also protect against genital warts and anal cancer in Men.HPV vaccines are recommended to girls and women up to 45 years and vaccines are more efficacious in those who have not previously been exposed to the virus.
Nowadays,three kind of HPV vaccines are available in Malaysia ( Bi-valent,Quadrivalent and 9 valent HPV vaccine).
Health economic analysis have shown that HPV vaccination is a cost effective strategy.
DR.FATAMAR BT ABBAS
TIM. PENGARAH PUSAT KESIHATAN UMP,
PEG. PERUBATAN UD47,